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موضوع: The women rights in quran

  1. #1

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    عصبانی The women rights in quran




    The women rights in quran
    First of all we need to sea is there any prejudice between man and women ?
    We have a lot of verses there are nor any prejudice between them lile:
    1- « مَن عَمَلَ صالحاً مِن ذکراً و انثی وَ هُوَ مُومِنٌ فَلنحینةٌ حیاةٌ طبیبة و لنجزینهم اَجرهم با حسن ما کانوا یَعمَلون
    » Surah alnahl – verse 97
    whoever does good whether male or female and he is a believer, we will most certainly make him live a happy life, and we will most certainly give them their reward for the best of what they did .

    2- وَمَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِّن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَى وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُوْلَئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ يُرْزَقُونَ فِيهَا بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ.
    surah ghafer – verse 40
    and whoever does good, whether male or female, and he is a believer, these shall enter the garden, in which they shall be given sustenance without measure


    3- « وَ مَن یَعمَل مِنَ الصّالِحاتِ مِن ذَکَرٍ اَو اُنثی و هُوَ مُؤمِنٌ فَاوُلئکَ یَدخُلُونَ الجَنًًَّةَ و لا یُظلَمُونَ نَفیراً»[4]
    Surah alnisa -verse 124
    and whoever does good deeds whether male or female and he (or she) is a believer-- these shall enter the garden, and they shall not be dealt with a jot unjustly

    4- يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ .surah alhojorat – verse 13
    o you men! surely we have created you of a male and a female



    الهمّ صلّ علی محمّد وآل محمّد

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  3. #2

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    خندیدن the pattern women in quran




    There are four women in quran as a good pattern and as abad pattern


    Two women are as good like maryam and Aseyeh (she was asferoun woman)

    1- maryam
    "و مَريمَ ابْنَتَ عِمرانَ التي اَحصَنَتْ فَرجَهَا فَنَفَخنا فيهِ مِن رُوحِنا وَ صَدَّقََتْ‏ بِكَلِماتِ رَبِّها وَ كُتُبِِهِ وَ كانَتْ مِنَ القانِتِين" (surah altahrim – verse 12)

    and marium, the daughter of imran, who guarded her chastity, so we breathed into her of our inspiration and she accepted the truth of the words of her lord and his books, and she was of, the obedient ones

    2- Asiyeh

    "و ضَربَ اللهُ مَثَلاً لِلذينَ آمَنُوا امرَاَةَ فِرعَونَ اذ قالَتْ رَبِّ ابْنِِ لِي عِندَكَ بَيتاً فِي الجَنّةِ و نَجِّني مِن فِرعَونَ و عَمَلِهِ (و نَجِّني مِنَ القَومِ الظالِمِين (surah altahreim – verse 11

    and allah sets forth an example to those who believe the wife of firon when she said: my lord! build for me a house with thee in the garden and deliver me from firon and his doing, and deliver me from the unjust people
    ویرایش توسط hoseintabar : ۱۳۸۶/۱۱/۱۶ در ساعت ۰۷:۱۵
    الهمّ صلّ علی محمّد وآل محمّد

  4. #3

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    تعجب There are two idioms about men and women:




    In the name of god


    (1)


    There are two idioms about men and women:


    1- difference


    2- prejudice


    In islam we don’t have any prejudice between man and women


    So there are a lot of verses in quran we we sea men and women are the same as a soul Like.


    1- وَاللّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَزْوَاجِكُم بَنِينَ وَحَفَدَةً وَرَزَقَكُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ أَفَبِالْبَاطِلِ يُؤْمِنُونَ وَبِنِعْمَتِ اللّهِ هُمْ يَكْفُرُونَ – verse 72. surah al- nahl

    and allah has made wives for you from among yourselves, and has given you sons and grandchildren from your wives, and has given you of the good things; is it then in the falsehood that they believe while it is in the favor of allah that they disbelieve?


    2- يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالاً كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاء ... – vers 1.surah alnisa
    o people! be careful of (your duty to) your lord, who created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind) and spread from these two, many men and women ..

    3- أَنِّي لاَ أُضِيعُ عَمَلَ عَامِلٍ مِّنكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَى بَعْضُكُم مِّن بَعْضٍ ..surah ali imran – vers 195

    that i will not waste the work of a worker among you, whether male or female, the one of you being from the other .

    ویرایش توسط hoseintabar : ۱۳۸۶/۱۲/۰۵ در ساعت ۱۶:۵۳
    الهمّ صلّ علی محمّد وآل محمّد

  5. #4

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    عصبانی Women and men differents




    Women and men differents
    We have two idioms about women rights
    1- Difference
    2- prejudice
    There is not any prejudice between men and women
    But here we see a lot of verses about difference between theme such as difference between men and another men like:
    1- Different in inheritance
    يُوصِيكُمُ اللّهُ فِي أَوْلاَدِكُمْ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأُنثَيَيْنِ..chapter nisa –verse 15
    allah enjoins you concerning your children: the male shall have the equal of the portion of two females..
    2defferent in management
    * - الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاء بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ .. chapter nisa – verse 34
    men are the protectors of women because allah has made some of them to excel others.

    الهمّ صلّ علی محمّد وآل محمّد

  6. #5

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    تعجب Women In The Quran




    WOMEN IN THE QURAN AND IN THE FABRICATED RELIGION
    The issue about women has had the most additions to the established religion. Women were lowered to the level of a slave, of a servant employed in household affairs and a sex instrument at the disposal of her husband, justified in the light of concocted hadiths and sectarian interpretations and viewpoints. The majority of the fair sex, unable to make any distinction between what is truly revealed and what is fabricated, continued to trudge along the path designated by men who went on preaching the words reported to have been told by the Prophet to the effect that paradise lay under
    the feet of mothers. We shall presently see how sincere their approach to womankind has been
    TISSUE OF LIES ABOUT WOMEN BY SECTS BASED ON FABRICATED HADITHS

    The basic target has been to render a woman a slave of her husband, making her unconditionally loyal to him. Subservience to one’s husband was considered to be a devotional act.

    Were I to ordain prostration to human beings I would have decreed that women should prostrate themselves before their husbands because of the debt they owe them.
    Tirmizi, Rada, Abu Davud, Nikah, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad, Ibn Maja, Nikah

    Even though her husband’s body be smeared from head to foot with pus and the wife cleans it by licking him, yet her debt to him would still remain unsettled.
    Ibn Hajar al Haytami, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad

    O women! Were you ever to realize the debt you owe your husbands you would not hesitate to wipe the dust off their feet by rubbing your cheeks on them.
    Hafýz Zahabi, Great Sins

    Women’s devotion and intellect are defective.
    Sahihi Bukhari

    You curse much and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have seen no creatures lacking in intelligence and devotion except you who can tempt man.
    Muslim, Iman, Ibn Maja, Fiten

    The mentality that makes a woman captive of her man makes her destined for hell and defective in devotional attitude, conflicting thereby with the explicit remarks contrary to the Quran.

    A good woman is like a magpie among one hundred crows.
    Sahihi Bukhari

    O womankind! Give alms and repent. I have observed that the majority of the inmates of hell consist of women.
    Muslim, Iman, Ibn Maja, Fiten

    A WOMAN CAN BE ADMITTED INTO PARADISE ONLY BY PERMISSION OF HER HUSBAND

    In addition to the hadiths that condemn her, the admission of woman to paradise depends on her husband’s satisfaction and approval.

    If a woman dies, she may go to paradise if her husband happens to be satisfied with her.
    Riyazus Salihin

    The laudable woman is she who endures her husband’s frivolities and occasional unfaithfulness, thanks to which she will be admitted to paradise.
    Religious Information for Women

    Such observations often encountered in the books of Muslim, Bukhari, Týrmizi, Muvatta and Shiite sources, have their roots from the periods of the Omayyads and Abbasids. No such vilification of woman exists in the Quran. The eligibility for heaven according to the Quran depends on the devotion exhibited by a person regardless of the sex involved.

    13 - O people! We created you from a single pair of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may recognize one another. The best among you in the sight of God is the most righteous.
    49 The Rooms, 13

    As we can see, the Quran makes no distinction between nations, tribes and sexes. Yet, woman has been considered as an instrument likely to lead a man to hell.

    There are four things that invalidate a man’s prayer: a black dog, a donkey, a pig and a woman.
    Sahihi Muslim, Salat, Tirmizi Salat, Abu Davud, Salat

    There are three things that are inauspicious: a woman, a house and a horse.
    Abu Davud, Týb, Muslim, Salam, Bukhari, Nikah



  7. #6

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    SALVATION FOR AGED TOOTHLESS HUSBANDS

    Imam Sharani and Imam Ghazzali, two of the foremost representatives of the mentality that sees women as inauspicious, agents who invalidate one’s prayer, have bequeathed the following mine of information to future generations.

    A man may have lost his teeth and become ugly while his wife happens to be young and very beautiful. It is possible that such a woman, who may have gone out to the market or to other places where she may have been invited, sees handsome men and upon her return home is reluctant to be responsive to her husband’s amorous advances. This is the result of the visit of a woman to markets and social gatherings to say the least.
    Imam Sharani,Ubudul Kubra

    May God’s curse be upon those whose profession is tattooing and who have their bodies tattooed, and upon those who have the hair on their cheeks removed and their teeth re-fashioned.
    Sahihi Bukhari

    Those who wear wigs, pluck their eyebrows, make or have tattoos on their bodies are cursed.
    Abu Davud, Tarajul

    If a woman wears a wig, has her arms and face tattooed or uses beauty spots or has her face and eyebrows plucked by tweezers and changes her appearance, she is cursed.
    Imam Sharani, Ubudul-Kubra

    According to a hadith the companions and disciples of the Prophet had the shutters of the house tightly closed to prevent their wives from seeing men passing by and used to beat those who peered outside.
    Imam Ghazzali- Ihya u Ulumiddin

    See that your women remain somewhat hungry without going too far, and deprive them of beautiful apparel. For if they have their bellies full and are dolled up, they are sure to be tempted by outside attractions. Whereas, if they are somewhat hungry and not so well dressed, they will stay at home.
    Ibnul Jawzi, Mawzuat, Suyuti, Leali, Ibn Arrak, Tanzihushsharia

    Don’t let your women put on smart dresses, since if they are dolled up, their hearts will leave home.
    Imam Ghazzali- Kimyayý Saadet, Ibn Abi Shayha, Musannaf

    A woman who has to go out shall abide by the following principles once she has obtained the consent of her husband:
    1- To be dressed dowdily,
    2- To behave as if she is not actually out.
    3- To bow her head and be careful not to look at the face of strangers.
    4- To avoid crowds.
    5- To avoid places frequented by men.
    6- To prefer deserted side-streets.
    7- To finish her work quickly and return home.
    Imam Ghazzali, Ihyayý Ulumiddin

    THE BEST WOMAN IS SHE WHO IS LIKE SHEEP

    Those, who through such absurd injunctions, tried to project their jealousies over others and transformed them into religious commands , gave Islam an area open to attacks. Here are a few more remarks about women, decreed by Imam Ghazzali:

    A woman has seven properties:

    1- She is like an ape with her strong desire to get all dressed up;
    2- She is like a dog as she is loath to be poor;
    3- She is like a snake because of her overbearing pride both to her husband and to others;
    4- She is like a rat when she sells household goods;
    5- She is like a scorpion as she is a backbiter;
    6- She is like a fox as she sets up traps for men;
    7- She is like a sheep as she obeys her husband.
    Imam Ghazzali, Ihyayý Ulumuddin

    The ideal woman is the one of the sheepish kind! The woman deprived of all freedom is not even allowed to go on pilgrimage. The woman is not allowed to go a distance of more than 90 km (55 miles) without the accompaniment of her next of male kin (father, uncle, brother, husband). Under the circumstances a woman who cannot persuade a next of kin to accompany her cannot even fulfill her binding duty of hajj. God has made no distinction of sex in this binding duty. A woman’s performing her prayer in the mosque came to be prohibited by fabricated hadiths since she would then have to go out. Thus a woman’s prayer at home is indicated to be more meritorious than the prayer she would have performed in the mosque.

    71 - The believing, men and women, are allies of one another.
    9 Repentance, 71

    How do they expect that the man and the woman will establish this alliance, given the fact that even their speaking to each other is forbidden? The continuation of the verse mentions that those who will bring about this alliance will be rewarded by God’s mercy. If the said mercy has been withheld in communities alleging to be Muslims, it may be due to their disobedience in this respect.

    Among the Hanafis even the voice of the woman must be hushed so that the man may not listen to it.
    Fýkhus Siyra

    You are allowed to speak only with your mahrem (husband, father, nephew…).
    Ibn Kathir

    SPEAKING WITH A MOUTH FULL OF PEBBLES

    With the segregation of men and women, women became isolated, and were not allowed to have male friends, so much so, in fact, that even conversations between women were to be conducted in whispers to prevent men from hearing their voices. However, in case of an emergency, a woman was allowed to address men only if she had filled her mouth with pebbles.

    She was not allowed to perform her prayer when menstruating, nor could she read the Quran or keep the fast during her period. The Quran merely mentions that one should not have sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman. If God had desired that she should not recite the Quran or keep the fast, He certainly would have made it explicit.

    22 – They ask you about menstruation. Say: “It is harmful. So keep away from women during menstruation, and do not approach them until they are relieved of it.”
    2 The Cow, 222

    As we can see, the Quran gives every detail that a person requires. Yet, women’s acts have been restricted by segregating them, by preventing them from performing the Friday prayer. The restrictions imposed on them, which do not exist in the Quran, are considered abominations. The concoctions went as far as fabricating hadiths that declared anyone complying with a woman’s word would perish. Such an idea is utterly against the philosophy of the Quran.

    Do not take counsel from women; oppose them, for opposition to womankind brings prosperity.
    Suyuti, Leali, Ibn Arrak, Tanzihush Sharia

    Whoever obeys his wife, God will throw him into hell.
    Ibn Arrak II, 215

    WOMEN AS IMAMS, MUEZZINS AND HEADS OF STATE

    There is nothing in the Quran to suggest that certain offices are prohibited to women; consequently, they may rise to the position of president, caliph, judge, imam or muezzin (caller to prayer). Everything is permitted unless explicitly prohibited by the Quran. Freedom is the principle while prohibition is an exception; moreover if there are any exceptions, they are explicitly stated in the verses of the Quran. Thus, there are no obstacles for women who desire to attain the above positions.

    A community headed by a woman is a doomed community.
    Ibn Hanbal Musnad, Tirmizi-Fitan Nesai- Kudat, Bukhari Fiten

    The opponents of Aisha, the Prophet’s wife, who had taken command of the situation during the Jamal incident, must have concocted this fabricated hadith. Süleyman Ateþ makes the following comment: “The hadith in question must be alluding to Aisha. However, had the Prophet said something like it, Aisha would not have been given the mission in question, and Talha and Zubayra would not have tolerated this. The authenticity of this hadith that contradicts the Quran is dubious” (Süleyman Ateþ, Commentary of the Quran).

    Those who invent hadiths to support their own political views also ignore the description of the Queen of Sheba. Verses 22 and 44 of Sura The Ant mention the community ruled by a woman. We observe her described as an intelligent and wise woman prudent in that she does not take risks in exposing her community to precarious situations. There is not a single suggestion in the Quran to the effect that a woman cannot be a ruler.

    Don’t teach women how to read or write. Let them be trained in sewing and see that they recite the Sura The Light.
    Ibnul Jawzi-Mawzuat



  8. #7

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    FABRICATION OF HADITHS FOR SEXUAL ENDS

    If a man calls his wife to bed and the wife refuses, the angels curse her till the early hours of the morning.
    Bukhari

    The men worried about being refused fabricated this hadith that alluded to the Prophet. Women deprived of their right to divorce came thus under men’s oppression.

    If a woman obtains a divorce, she will not savor the scent of heaven.
    Religious Information for Women

    In the Quran expressions like ‘Divorced Women’ (see 2 The Cow, 228-241) may have both meanings: namely, a woman who has obtained a divorce or one who has been divorced. Considering that there is no explicit prescription in the Quran making the act of divorce exclusive to men, women should, in principle, enjoy the same right.

    Another hadith says:

    God will not answer the prayer of a woman who dabs on perfume before entering the mosque, unless she goes home and cleanses herself by total ritual ablution of her body.
    Avnul Mabul

    Men putting on perfume is commendable while women doing so are stamped with having committed a sinful act. The rationale is that men are aroused by beautiful scents. The fact that women may also feel the same sensation does not occur to them. Furthermore, why was this not foreseen in the Quran?

    Unless the place where a woman had been sitting cools off, it must not be occupied by a man.
    Religious Information for Women

    This hadith generates many complications in modern urban life as one can readily see.

    CERTAIN MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT WOMEN

    It all begins in the stories about Adam and Eve. Nowhere in the Quran do we come across anything about the temptation of Adam by Eve. If we read inbetween the lines of 7 The Purgatory, 11 and 28, we can see that both Adam and Eve had been tempted by Satan. Moreover, the legend that Eve had been created from Adam’s rib is not mentioned anywhere in the Quran.

    Another unjustified claim often made about the Quran is that it addresses men solely. Ninety percent of the verses address both sexes. There are also verses that address only men or women. Anyone who seriously reads the Quran will see that the Quran addresses the general public and not a single sex.

    35 - For Muslim men and women; for believing men and women, for devout men and women, for men and women who are patient and constant, for men and women who humble themselves, for men and women who give in charity, for men and women who fast, for men and women who remember God a great deal, for them has been prepared forgiveness and great rewards.
    33 The Parties, 35

    Although the greater part of the Quran addresses the general public, there are also verses that address women and men separately.

    POLYGAMY IN HISTORY

    One must be reminded of the fact that Islam extends over a great space of time and embraces a vast portion of the earth’s geography that enjoys varying climates. There are communities of people ranging from the smallest of tribes to the greatest of empires, dealing in such a wide range of activities so that agricultural pursuits alternate with industrial ventures in diverse social and political milieus and cultural backgrounds, of different customs. The universality of the Quran befitting every situation, differing customs, conditions and milieus has been achieved thanks to the vastness of its latitude. So far we have covered the attempts at the creation and the perpetuation of an ‘Arabic Islam’ in which the turban, the robe with long sleeves reaching down to the ankles and the wearing of a beard were some of the conspicuous characteristics; these attempts had untoward effects on the spread of Islam. The elbowroom that the Quran has conceded to mankind allows the people of different cultural backgrounds to wear their customary apparel. The same holds true for polygamy. Polygamy is not prohibited in the Quran; however, it is not especially promoted and encouraged.

    Different cultural backgrounds had different practices. In communities where a great many of the male population died in battle and the balance between the male and female population was disrupted, polygamy had become indispensable. In agricultural societies where crowded families wielded immense power, polygamy had been the solution to lighten the burden of women in household affairs, and there were times when the wives went to look for consorts for their husbands. In Islam, the intention to marry is expressed by both sides and the woman does enjoy the right to divorce her husband. In other words, in cases where there are matrimonial disputes in a family, the wife is free, according to the Quran, to ask for a divorce. The so-called prohibition for the woman to have recourse to divorce, or the supremacy of the decision of her family on that issue has nothing to do with the Quran, but are merely traditional practices. Polygamy was not only a product of Eastern cultural background since it has also found favor in the West under certain conditions. In the wake of the two world wars such a solution was sought, and an article that appeared in the Daily Mail had suggested polygamy as the only solution on the grounds that there had been a considerable rise in the female population. In 1949 the people in Bonn, to be precise, women’s associations, had applied to the authorities concerned demanding that the institution of polygamy be incorporated into the constitution. The European authoress Annie Besant, who made an assessment of the plight of the Western post-war cultural and social situation, writes as follows: “Monogamy no longer exists in the West. What prevails at present is an irresponsible state of polygamy. When a man has had enough of his mistress, he abandons her, after which the abandoned woman gradually falls prey to the state of a prostitute. Her plight is much worse than the state of the woman who happens to be one of the wives of a single husband. If we take into consideration this state of affairs, we must own that we Westerners are far from being justified in condemning the institution of polygamy. Rather than being defiled, seeking a refuge, deprived of all affection and care, abandoned with her illegitimate children, dispossessed of all rights of inheritance and submitting in servility to the pleasure of any chance encounter, to enjoy the honor of being one of the lawful wives of a man and live in his household is far better.”

    DOG MEAT AND POLYGAMY

    As we have already pointed out, polygamy is not an obligation; it is left to the husband’s discretion, although in certain communities it is even encouraged by the female spouse. The Quran prohibits solely the consumption of dead animals, blood, pork, and, last but not least, animals slaughtered in the name of some being other than God. All other edible material is allowed. For instance, dog meat is a favorite dish in China. The ways and manners differ according to the geographical and social status of a community. However, what is considered to be lawful should not be interpreted as a devotional act. This important point has often been misconceived by the communities whose ways differ from each other. So long as the Quran has not explicitly stated that a given thing or act is prohibited, the said thing or act is lawful; it is not against Islam. For instance, going to a wedding party in Hawaii wearing shorts, painting one’s face with various colors like American Indians, belching or passing gas may be deemed normal in certain cultures. Muslims living among these communities may live up to their standards without being accused of non-compliance. The Quran is neutral in this respect. The Quran speaks neither in favor of nor against such acts. Just as it is irrelevant to attribute to the religion such injunctions as “Islam commands you to eat dog meat,” or “Islam commands you to go to a wedding party in shorts,” it is equally irrelevant to say “Polygamy is sanctioned by Islam.” The act favored and ordered by Islam and the act that is free just because it is not forbidden are two different things.

    Under normal conditions in peacetime, we observe a quasi equality between the male and female populations. This is a sign that polygamy is an exception. The Quran states that monogamy should be observed if a husband is not sure of being partial to any one of his wives.

    3 – But if you fear you cannot treat them with equality, marry only one.
    4 The Women, 3

    Polygamy is foreseen in the Quran. However, it is neither recommended nor forbidden. Man is free to choose. He may or may not take more than one wife. The Quran addresses, as we have mentioned at the beginning of the present book, mankind, people with different cultures, in different periods of history, in time of peace and of war, the agricultural and industrial communities, the big states as well as the small insular inhabitants. The Islam preached in the Quran is not exclusive to a single civilization, a single industrial community, a single place where peace reigns. The Omayyads and Abbasids contrived to introduce foreign elements into Islam and succeeded to implant their local tribal customs as if they were dictates of Islam (like growing a beard, wearing a robe with full sleeves and long skirts, wearing a turban and living a polygamous life) since there was nothing against such practices. Today one is free to shave and wear trousers, wear a necktie and prefer monogamy without offending Islam in any way whatsoever. In these there is nothing offensive against Islam. On the other hand, recognizing the uniqueness of God, helping the poor, keeping the fast are the prescriptions of the Quran and were part of the injunctions that both the Omayyads and Abbasids had had to observe, and require contemporary Muslims and the future Muslim generations to abide by them.

    THE PROPHET’S WIVES

    The wives of the Prophet and the stories about them are not mentioned in the Quran. The story of the Prophet’s marriage with a nine year old girl is again a fabrication of the hadiths. 99% of the stories told about the Prophet’s wives have their origin in the hadiths. They may be correct or not. One fact is certain though; they are not reliable.

    52 – No other women are lawful for you after this.
    33 The Parties, 52

    Prior to the revelation of this verse, what had been lawful for the public at large was also lawful for the Prophet. This verse, however, introduced a restraint for the Prophet, a restraint not applicable to other men. The wives of the Prophet, like all other women, married him by their own free will. The Prophet, following the customs of the time, contracted marriages without infringing on the injunctions of the Quran. Whatever we are supposed to know is there in the Quran. Any further concern by us is irrelevant. The message of the Quran revealed to the Prophet is the religion transmitted to us through him. The private life of the Prophet may be evaluated by going back to the times and conditions that prevailed in his era. We are not in a position to pass judgment by having recorded reported hadiths. In point of fact, one of the useless and vain discussions on the issue has been the result of the servile obedience and unshakeable acceptance of the fabricated hadiths.

    WOMEN AS WITNESSES

    Nowhere in the Quran is it mentioned that two women are equivalent to one man as a witness. For instance, the testimony of four witnesses is required to prove adultery, and in the Quran no discrimination is made between male and female witnesses, only the number of witnesses is mentioned. However, there is a misunderstood instance described in Sura The Cow, 282, related to time loans. According to this verse, the loan received must be evidenced by a written document, and the presence of witnesses during its execution is required. This is a commercial contract that should not harm the scribe or the witnesses. It is a well-known fact that when material interests are at play, people are reluctant to give testimony. The Quran charges this heavy duty to two men. Take note that only two men are mentioned. A phrase such as ‘or four women’ does not appear. Thus, a woman who rarely deals in commercial affairs, and is weaker in the face of likely pressures and oppressions is protected. Should two men be unavailable and only one is accessible, then the required number would be one man and two women. In this way, the obligation to bear testimony is realized, and should an untoward situation occur later, an encounter between a man and a woman is avoided. Let us assume that a dispute arose about the amount of the loan. The woman, who will have to face one man failing to agree on the amount in question, cannot avoid experiencing stress and pressure. Whereas if there are two women in the picture, they can put up a bold face against the man and the ill-intentioned witnesses will be in a difficulty to put pressure on the women. This practice, which protects women from undue pressure, has been wrongly interpreted and made a generality of this particular case. Except for this particular instance, there is no other discrimination elsewhere in the Quran. Had this been a general principle, God would have made it explicit simply by stating that the testimony of one male witness corresponds to the testimony of two female witnesses.

    We have to take note of the statement that runs: “Do not injure either the scribe or the witness. Otherwise you risk swerving from the right path.” The pressure both the witness and the scribe labor under may be imagined and the rationale of the verse can be better understood.

    BEATING WOMEN

    One other verse misinterpreted happens to be Verse 34 of Sura The Women. We would like to quote here from two authors. “This verse does not allude to the incontestable superiority of man,” says Yaþar Nuri Öztürk. “The reference is made to the difference between men’s and women’s respective constitutions. Yet, most of the commentators that have had recourse to willful misinterpretation of the Quranic verses to serve their own ends explained away the expression ‘qawwam’ mentioned in the Quran to mean overlordship, justifying in this way man’s despotism. The term ‘fadribu’ mentioned in the Quran has been reduced to having a single meaning while it actually has more than one. Approaches that aimed to vilify woman in every instance could not have done otherwise. ‘Fadribu,’ having as its root darb has more than 30 meanings, of which the most important are ‘to strike,’ ‘to beat,’ ‘to exit,’ ‘to go out,’ ‘to take a walk’ (see Ibn Mansur, Lisan ul Arab, under the entry for darb). Under the circumstances, ‘fadribu’ may assume the following meanings: 1- To send out; 2- To force out from somewhere; 3- To beat. The first two are certainly more rational and compatible with human psychology and law.” Edip Yüksel’s comment on this misinterpretation is as follows: “While the words ‘errijalu kavvamune alennisai’ should be interpreted as ‘men watch over women’ or ‘men are responsible for women’s upkeep,’ all the commentaries in Turkish that I have come across have interpreted it to assume the meaning of sovereignty over women. Why do our commentaries attach such discordant meanings as “master, lord” to the Arabic word ‘qawwam’ instead of attaching to it meanings like “watching over, sustaining, maintaining.” The root of the word ‘qawwam,’ is ‘qwm.’ You may go over all the verses where the derivatives of this root are used, and you will fail to find an expression meaning overlord or master. When the expression ‘badehum’ in the verse in question is addressed only to men using the pronoun hum, the meaning that comes out will be ‘Some men are superior to other men.’ However, this meaning is at odds with the context. On the other hand, if the pronoun hum is addressed to a mixed group of men and women, then we have ‘God has made some men and some women superior to other men and women.’ Another acceptable rendering would be ‘God endowed everyone with different merits and characteristics.’ The word ‘idribuhanna’ in Sura The Women has been translated as ‘beat those women.’ Before dwelling on this particular expression, I should like to bring to your attention an assessment of the matrimonial relations in the Quran. The following is said in 30 The Romans, 21: ‘And among His signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that you may dwell in tranquility with them, and He has put love and mercy between you. Verily in that are signs for those who think.’ Thus, the objective in marriage is love and mercy. The word ‘daraba’ in Arabic has an infinite number of meanings; namely: to mint, to go on strike, to beat, to hold, to play. For instance the word ‘idrib’ means to go out. The Arabic-speaking people in North Africa still use this word in this sense. While looking for the exact meaning of a word in a given context we must be fastidious and use our common sense. For example if ‘daraba’ mentioned in 13 The Thunder, 17 had been translated as ’to beat’ instead of ’to explain,’ an absurd meaning would come out of it and the result would be ‘God beats truth and falsehood in this way.’ On the other hand, the word ‘nushuz’ in Verse 34 of Sura The Women has been translated as a disobedient, brawling woman. The word actually has a wider range of significance covering such meanings as flirting, licentiousness, illicit sexual relations. As a matter of fact when we inquire into its meaning in the given context, the second meaning seems to be more appropriate. Verse 34 of Sura The Women teaches the husband how to treat his unfaithful wife. It falls upon the husband to admonish his wife in the first place. If the woman continues to flirt with others, the husband will separate their bed. And if even this does not help and the woman begins to enter into adulterous relationships, then the husband will send her out. To beat a woman that infringes on the marriage contract would not be a solution. To part with her should be the solution even if this be painful.

    WOMEN AS HEIRESSES

    In the distribution of the estate, money etc. of a deceased person, the written will takes precedence. The fundamentalist Islamist dared to modify this explicit statement of the Quran and asserted the principle “No will has been foreseen for inheritors.” According to the Quran, the will takes precedence, followed by the debts of the deceased. In 5 The Feast, 106 and 2 The Cow, 180, we can observe the advice given regarding the execution of the will. On the other hand, in 4 The Women, 11-12 it is ordained that the sharing of inheritance takes place after settling the provisions foreseen in the will and the outstanding debts. While studying inheritance falling to the shares of men and women within the general framework of the Quran, we should do well to understand the flow of money and economic relations involved in the Quran. According to the Quran, during the enactment of the marriage contract, a man gives a certain sum of money (either in cash, gold etc.). (This money is given to the wife and not to her parents.) As the sum in question has not been determined, the woman who will be abandoning her home and may become destitute may also ask to be given a home or a car, etc. If they mutually agree on the consideration, the marriage contract takes effect. In case the woman’s own wealth is enough to support her, she may opt for a ring or a gift of some sort. The Quran ordains that this consideration be duly given. However, the consideration in question must be agreed upon by both parties. Moreover, the man assumes the responsibility to take charge of the support of his wife and offspring. In the case of a divorce, the support of the children and, if the mother is nursing her child, the upkeep of the female spouse also falls to the man. Thus the woman receives not only the consideration agreed upon, but also the allowance to support herself and her children. In case the widow’s assets are not sufficient to support her, then every god-fearing believer has the charge of contributing to her living (2 The Cow, 241). As one can readily see, the money of the man charged with many responsibilities is continually divided. And God has apportioned for the male child an inheritance twice as much as He has dispensed for the female child (4 The Women 11). Details of inheritance can be seen in Verses 11, 12, and 176 of The Women (both parents inherit one sixth of the estate in equal shares).

    Now, other considerations may be brought forth in our day stating that there are women who earn a living nowadays, some are even wealthy, etc. Let us remember that the first principle is what is bequeathed in the will.

    WOMEN’S POSITION ACCORDING TO THE QURAN

    32 - You shall not covet the equalities bestowed upon each other by God. Men have a share in what they earn, and women have theirs in what they earn.
    4 The Women, 32

    We can see that both men and women have their respective superiorities, neither of them being superior to the other in an absolute sense. To say that man is superior to woman in every respect or to claim an absolute equality between the sexes is irrational. 2 The Cow, 32 beautifully indicates the mutually complementary character of the sexes. “For God well knows what He has created.” Omniscient God has arranged everything according to His perfect order. This order has been secured, sometimes by the imposition of a provision and sometimes by the purposeful absence of it. The adaptability of the provisions of the Quran according to the time, the culture and the community owes its unity to the prevailing conditions to this flexibility. The traditionalist mentality that has failed to conceive this miraculous approach of the Quran has had the audacity to impose restrictions absent in the Quran.

    SUPERIORITY IS NOT RELATED TO SEX BUT IN THE EXECUTION OF RIGHTEOUS ACTS

    124 – If any do deeds of righteousness, be they male or female, while believing, they will enter heaven and not the least injustice will be done to them.
    4 The Women, 124

    97 – Whosoever works righteousness, whether man or woman, while believing, we will surely grant them a happy life in this world, and we will surely pay them their recompense for their righteous works.
    16 The Ant, 97

    The real life according to the Quran is the life of the hereafter. The life of this world is but a short journey whose ultimate end is the life hereafter. The superiority among human beings is achieved by good deeds and no distinction or discrimination is made in favor of the male population as compared to the female
    population.




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